Reprinted with permission of the National Garden Bureau:
Sweet Treats for Your Garden:
2015 is the Year of the Sweet Pepper!
Pepper plants are easy to grow, require very little space and are an attractive addition to any garden, yard, or balcony and that is the reason National Garden Bureau chose 2015 as the Year of the Sweet Pepper.
Sweet peppers are called sweet because they do not produce capsaicin–a chemical that causes a “burning” sensation when hot peppers are consumed (or when they come in to contact with the eyes or nose etc.). Sweet peppers lack capsaicin due to a recessive form of a gene that eliminates capsaicin and, consequently, the “hot” taste usually associated with the rest of the capsicum genus.
“Bell” is a term used in the U.S.A. that refers to sweet peppers with 3-4 lobes. Bell might either refer roughly to the fruit shape or to the pendulous way the fruit hang from the plant. In the U.S. agriculture industry, the 3-4 lobed fruit that are nearly as wide as they are tall are referred to as “blocky” bells and the elongated bell peppers are called “half-long” bells. Bells can be found in many colors including red, yellow, orange, purple, chocolate and ivory.
“Bull’s Horn” peppers are sweet and wide at the shoulder, tapering to a point. They often have thicker walls than the blocky bells and commonly mature to red. They are thought to have been brought to the U.S. from Italy and are also called “Corno di Toro”- which translates to “Horn of the Bull.”
Mini-Snacking peppers have been popular with home gardeners for many years and have gained popularity in U.S. grocery stores in the last 10 years or so. They are blocky, pointed, thin-walled, sweet, and come in bright colors including, yellow and orange. The best snacking peppers are crunchy and have just a few seeds or no seeds at all.
And now we enter the dangerous territory of varieties that can be either sweet or hot. Bananas are long and thin and usually mature from a light green or yellow to red. They are used fresh and pickled as rings. Because there are both sweet and hot banana peppers available, be sure and order the seed or buy the plant you prefer. Sweet jalapenos and habaneros are also available though not as common. They are worth searching out–the flavored revealed by removing the burn is a pleasant surprise for the pepper enthusiast.
How to Grow
In the nursery look for bright green plants with shiny, perky foliage. It is better to buy younger plants that have not yet flowered when possible. Older plants can become stunted and root-bound in the tiny starter containers and will not transplant as well as smaller, younger plants. Plants can sometimes become stressed in some garden centers. Choose a garden center that cares for its plants and waters regularly. Make the nursery your last stop–don’t leave new plants in a hot car or truck bed for any longer than you need to. The best technique is to ready your soil and area in advance in order to get the plants in the ground quickly. Late afternoon planting causes the least amount of stress to young pepper plants giving them a night to adjust before they need to survive the first day of sun.
Peppers like a sunny spot. They grow best in a location where plants from the same family have not recently grown–crop rotation is important for peppers (and tomatoes and eggplants). Soil should be loose and amended with compost or a vegetable soil mix from the garden center. Introduce your seedlings to the garden gradually and transplant during mild weather or in the late afternoon if possible. Transplant shock can slow the maturity of the plant and affect fruit quality and quantity.
If planting in rows set peppers 12-18 inches apart in 24-inch wide beds. If planting in squares or in flowerbeds etc. allow 12-18 inches of space around each plant. Fertilize about every two weeks, especially if you notice the plants become pale. Stop fertilizing once the plant blooms so that it can put its energy into fruit set. Pepper plants prefer full sun, but if you live in a very warm area look for varieties that have “good coverage” of fruit. A full leaf canopy will prevent fruit from sunscald. Scalded fruit, though less attractive, are still edible and taste the same.
Plants will continue to bloom and set fruit until the first frost. If temperatures are above 85 degrees, or very cool, flower set and fruiting may slow down. Keep the plants watered and wait out the weather–they often will rebound if conditions improve. At the end of the season, cut down and remove plants and add mulch or plant a cover crop for the next year.
Common Pepper Problems
A benefit of container growing is that the plant can be introduced to cool nights or warm days gradually to avoid shock. In the spring, bring plants indoors when nighttime temps are below 55 degrees. Introduce the plants to warm days (over 85 degrees) a few hours at a time until they are acclimated to their final location. Once plants are established, water every few days (or when soil is dry and pulling away from the side of the pot. Fully soak the soil and avoid spraying water on the leaves. Follow the instructions on the fertilizer package or add mature compost as flowers are setting. Taper off on fertilizer, especially nitrogen after plants flower. Nitrogen encourages the plant to put its energy into the leaves and not setting fruit.
No matter how they are grown or used in the kitchen, sweet peppers add beauty, variety and health to any garden or home.